Monday, August 24, 2020

Creative Intelligence and Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Innovative Intelligence and Leadership - Essay Example In an authoritative setting, development will empower the business association to discover better approaches to working together that would make them serious in the commercial center. Configuration will improve their items and administrations while inventiveness will open unlimited prospects to the association to make open doors just as find new answers for existing issues. Or on the other hand, propose new ways that can expose a current strategy and procedures that would spare the organization assets and make it increasingly serious in the market. These three things are critical in meeting hierarchical goals. Advancement, plan and inventiveness are capacities that empower associations to make and perform better at a lower cost. This is predictable with the organization’s destinations which isn't just to improve its main concern yet in addition to make the association pertinent in the commercial center just as society by empowering it to make better items and administrations that doesn't just make benefit yet additionally serves society as

Saturday, August 22, 2020

High Prevalence Of Hiv Health And Social Care Essay

Social Determinants are status whereby monetary, cultural and health position drains for a gathering of individuals who are conceived, turn, populate, work and age, in their state. The monetary arrangement of their state is formed by the dissemination of cash, force and assets which impact the wellbeing position. These individuals are determiners of wellbeing who are loss of health unfairnesss. Orchestrating to World Health Organization an inconsistent dispersion of wellbeing harming encounters is non in any sense a ‘natural ‘ marvel yet is the outcome of a poisonous mix of hapless cultural approaches, treacherous financial understandings [ where the effectively wealthy and solid go much more extravagant and the hapless who are as of now bound to be wiped out go considerably more unfortunate ] , and terrible political relations. HIV is one of the universe ‘s taking infective slayers, asserting in excess of 25 million lives in the course of the last three decennaries. Around the world, youthful grown-up females matured 15-24 mature ages are 1.6 occasions each piece likely as juvenile work powers to be HIV positive. Blending to UNAIDS, in Sub Saharan, South Africa, has high commonness of HIV among juvenile grown-up females are assessed to be 3,300,000, which is the universe ‘s most elevated. Sub Saharan contains a portion of the universe ‘s most unfortunate and politically temperamental parts in this way HIV dominantly strikes youthful adults, the cultural and financial unsteadiness roots it ‘s way toA HIVA pestilence. These cultural disparities depend on authentic, social and basic elements which obstructed the fledglings to driving them to wellbeing risks and striping them from health benefits. The conditions which might be influence wellbeing degrees compelling fledgling into getting HIV in Sub Saharan is as follows,MarriageIn grouped piece of Sub Saharan, the normal example of juvenile miss marriage is an expanding of import factor in HIV scourge. Marriage youthful misss think less about HIV, are less capable arrange technique for insurance from HIV than single juvenile misss. Youthful misss are hitched to more established hubbies where age distinction is wide. The majority of the hubby conveys the HIV infection since they fill in as a transient workers.PovertyUnemployment, underemployment and following to neediness keep on representing high frequency ofA HIV inA Sub Saharan. PovertyA is the standard as rich controls the riches in Sub Saharan.A Economic continuance abrogates the existence concl usions among the hapless. The tie between destitution andA HIV has been wide. Because of neediness the get bying limits of groups of a youthful wedded grown-up female are influenced as they are devastated. To pull off their family unit, youthful grown-up females chronicles for dangerous behavioursA inA new cultural situations, resulting for an expansion occurrence of HIV.A To run into the expanding requests, a portion of these juvenile grown-up females may engageA inA value-based sexual exercises either once in a while or as expert business sex laborers, in this way propelling a savage sequenceA inA the spread of HIV. Young ladies in Sub Saharan are especially helpless against social convictions and examples as holding a relationship with grown-up male where sex is traded for stuff merchandise and insurance from a more established grown-up male and the conviction that a septic grown-up male can bring around himself by holding sex with more youthful grown-up females.Gender InequalityPatriarchy Dependence of WomenThe effect of juvenile womenA inA male centric social orders is moderately high in the spread ofA HIV. Youthful grown-up females ‘s restricted capacity to negociate safe sexA is a significant check in directing the pace of the HIV across the board. Youthful grown-up females are 3-4 times bound to be contaminated contrasted with their male inverse numbers. The male-predominant social orders keeps on deciding grown-up females ‘s sexual behaviourA accounts for the high pervasiveness of HIV in juvenile grown-up females. Since main part of the social orders are male-predominant, misss are refined from extremely youthful ages to play low-level capacities. Young ladies are developed by family unit on a â€Å" hand-down † molding of grown-up females to maintain family unit respect and picture. Hence youthful grown-up females are marriage at their juvenile age. Young ladies gets defenseless to the HIV as a result of their constrained powerA inA sexual brushs. It was noticed that greater part of theA HIV positive grown-up females were truly tainted by their accomplices. Youthful grown-up females ‘s reliance on work powers made them helpless toA HIV. InA African social orders, the creation of children is chosen by work powers, juvenile grown-up females might be under power per unit territory from their accomplices non simply to replicate, however to other than achieve a pined for figure of enduring children. In Sub Saharan social orders, grown-up females are need the ability to deny sex to their accomplices in any event, when they can demo instances of wedding infidelityA inA their relationship. An article in UNAIDS refered to that it ‘s an accepted that in Africa, the accomplices reserved an option to pulverize their wedded lady. Lady ‘ are committed to hold sex with her accomplice on request regardless of whether she was non intrigued. Much progressively current surveies keep on tieing in compatriot life partner power and high degrees of male controlA inA a grown-up female ‘s relationship withA HIVA seropositivity.Forced sexWomans who are casualties of sexual power are at a higher danger of being presented to HIV, and the insufficiency of elastic utilization and constrained nature of colza makes juvenile grown-up females increasingly helpless against HIV disease. Constrained sex and chaperon scratchs encourage section of HIV.AUnemploymentA blend of immersions, drouth, hapless dispersion framework, bombed organization, and expanding need to import supplement has involved scarceness inA the state. Joblessness rate augmentations. The HIV infectious sickness contributes when pre-adult/juvenile grown-up females see supplement shortage.A HIV resultsA when there ‘s inA less pay and less ability to respond joblessness rate. A primitive mood exists among craving, need andA HIV. At the point when a hubby obtained AIDS, the family load falls on wedded lady. A juvenile grown-up female she needs to pull off family craving and unhealthiness thus drive them to business sex workersOrphaned AdolescentVictims of AIDS stranded fledgling. The greater part of the universe ‘s AIDS stranded juvenil e resideA inA Sub Saharan. This could perchance resultA in a major figure of broken adults. Teenagers are left to think about their more youthful siblingsA inA the nonappearance of their folks. The power per unit zone on fledgling because of high mortality in the family unit, extend poverty. InA the substance of expanding requests, these grown-up females would most likely engageA inA sexual exercises and propelling the spread ofA HIV.AEducationSocioeconomic position and low education are main considerations act uponing this outcome. Youthful grown-up females are need instructive possibilities and experience less worry about the great beyond Low proficiency rates will in general bridle grown-up females ‘s cognizance about bar plans, .Entree to HealthcareYoung Women bound to keep indicting wellbeing consideration either on the grounds that side effects were non viewed as horrible, had vanished or for lack of cash. In any event, when grown-up females looked for consideration, the y were more probable than their male inverse numbers to go to open health consideration establishments where least consideration is the standard. Along these lines grown-up females are more averse to look for health consideration inA wellbeing consideration scenes contrasted with work forces.Cultural BeliefsMost Africans believeA inA the intensity of customary advisors to bring around wiped out individuals. Reuse of unsterilised acerate leafs and cross corrupt with patients ‘ natural structure liquids were designs among African customary healers.This combined with utilization of one unsterilised instrument on a few clientsA inA their examples is a significant factorA inA the spread ofA HIV. Because of moo economics and numbness as a result of little or no guidance and restricted assets to follow sterile methods keep on underlieing the examples of these conventional advisors. With restricted assets, youthful grown-up females become generally defenseless against these hazardous substitute redresss. Plans: In sub-Saharan Africa, involvement in youngster HIV bar programs is restricted, with grounds sing effectivity despite everything rising. Late trial of youngster HIV bar mediations have accomplished grouped outcomes. Three major network trial of thorough assaults to youth HIV bar, influencing schools and other cardinal foundations and partners, have neglected to altogether chop down HIV frequency in juvenile individuals, and have demonstrated only unassuming accomplishment in expanding defensive practices [ 8-10 ] . Be that as it may, two gathering based mediations in South Africa have indicated guarantee in cut bringing down revealed HIV-related peril practices, and in one occurrence, related natural outcomes [ 11-13 ] . The two mediations tended to HIV-related basic elements, or the cultural impacts fundamental HIV risk [ 14 ] , viz. sexual orientation based power [ 11-13 ] and grown-up females ‘s destitution [ 12,13 ] . Along with constrained outcomes of a few littler, school -based mediations, these outcomes have activated contention about ‘which interventions work ‘ [ 15 ] . The variable ‘economic action ‘ ordered youngsters into utilized, jobless and going to class. Young people who were in business were considered as monetarily dynamic, though those jobless were delegated financially inert, and were contrasted with fledglings go toing school. Plans A surveies in both created and creating states [ 2,5,7,16-19 ] recommend an of import work for school-based interventions in expanding youthful individuals ‘s perception of sex, generative health, and HIV bar, with a mass taking to diminishes in announced peril practices [ 5 ] . Surveys of school-based interventions explicit to

Thursday, July 23, 2020

incoming how ive been spending my iap

incoming how ive been spending my iap This past week and a half Ive been slowly adjusting to life at MIT again. I spent the two whole weeks of break just complaining about California and practically begging my mother to send me back to the cold hellhole that is Massachusetts. In this time, Ive been trying to keep myself busy and attempt to be an actual college student. I made a lot of promises in the beginning of the year that I have not kept. I said I would cook. Instead, Ive been mooching off of Raymond and Aiden for their cooking and practically anyone else who is willing to give me pitiful scraps here and there, like the stray rodent of Loop kitchen that vacuums trash with her mouth. I said Id be more diligent and better at coding. This is false. 6.145 is singlehandedly destroying my self esteem, and, despite enjoying liking coding and writing it out and basking in the satisfaction of finally understanding something, its been relatively disheartening watching my friends easily get solutions to problems it takes me significantly much more time to figure out. Regardless, Ive been keeping busy with my two classes and three jobs. I realize I dont really talk about my academics that much, so heres some brief insight on how things have been going. 8.01L 8.01L is the bane of my existence. Im pretty sure Im ridiculously close to NRing it. For the past semester and a half, Ive been meticulously calculating each of my grades to see what I need on each assignment to make sure I get at least a 60% in the class. This is truly PNR in action. I suggest every incoming frosh do this with their PNR classes. I am genuinely, wholly afraid that 8.01L is going to beat my ass and shred me into pieces. I am a fool who doesnt understand physics. It is terrifying. Luckily, my smart physics friends (see: Aidan and Mariia) have been helping me a lot with 8.01L. Please send me good vibes in the comments to make sure I actually pass 8.01L. 8.01L is the longer alternative to 8.01. Instead of being in TEAL format like 8.01 with teams and solving questions on the board, 8.01L features a traditional lecture style class and a slower pace. Its actually very nice and Ive learned a lot more physics in this class than I ever have in my life, I just am very bad at physics. If I were to fail 8.01L, Id have to take 8.011, a class designated for students who have taken some version of 8.01 in the past but have failed/NRd it. I honestly wouldnt mind taking it, but Id really like to get physics out of the way this year. Thus, I need to pass 8.01L so I can take 8.02 in the spring so I never, ever have to touch another physics class ever again. 6.145 This is MITs expedited version of the ever-so-famous 6.0001, commonly referred to as triple oh one. In 6.0001, students typically spend half a semester learning the basics to Python. IAP, however, offers this three week course on Python held completely online. Ive blocked out times on my schedule to dedicate time to it, however, this has not gone to plan. I am a fool who procrastinates and doesnt apportion time properly. 6.145 is fun, but also makes me Sad for reasons stated above. One day, hopefully, my smooth, small brain will develop bumps and I can evolve into the true Course 6 big brain I yearn to be. The class is held entirely online via a website they give us. When we log in, we are given readings and coding assignments due every Monday and Thursday at 5pm. Its reasonable, but Ive just asked for a lot of help. Like, a lot of help. Overall, very fun. Enjoying my time. Just struggling a tad bit. UROP I recently got a UROP at MITs Education Arcade! I think its actually the perfect combination of everything Ive wanted in a UROP. It perfectly melds my interest in video games with comparative media studies and interest in education and psychology which is really, really cool. Ive been working on doing research to help improve a study based on our VR game, Cellverse, which aims to help high school students learn the layout of a cell. This is one of the first times Ive ever actually enjoyed research. I find myself genuinely intrigued by the articles Im assigned and excited to go into my UROP every day to read. This UROP also confirmed that I am most definitely a CMS major. Id been contemplating for a bit if I wanted to do lab research for the longest time, but after getting a UROP in a lab setting, I realized that I really despised how cold it felt. There was such a distinct difference between the UROP I have now and the UROP I had before. The UROP I had before felt very detached, hours of switching between an empty cubicle and an isolated lab. The first day of my new UROP in the MIT Education Arcade, I sat down for lunch in the common area and was greeted by practically every staff member that worked on that floor. Together they talked about raising kids, playing Pokemon Go, and traveling. There was such warmth and kindness in the air that it made me feel very safe and at home. Not to mention the fact that the kitchen is always fully stacked with snacks, my two favorites being mms and dried mango slices. I love the work Im doing and honestly it doesnt even feel like work. Ive also been working on my other two jobs, a web-based research intern for the Massachusetts Science and Engineering Fair and, of course, this one. Ive been a bit blocked in terms of what to write. Right now Im trying to assemble a pageant experience post to talk about my experience as an MIT student in a pageant setting since it definitely was an experience like any other, but for now, its pretty taxing to write about especially since I have to give so much background and context. Anyway, update done. More to come~

Friday, May 22, 2020

The For The Advancement Of Human Reproduction Essay

Many different techniques are available to be used for the advancement of human reproduction. I have identified two of the best available manipulations that can be used and through this presentation I will be giving an overview of both of them. I will also be outlining two techniques that can be used for each manipulation and the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques. There will then be a comparison and contrast of the two manipulations in terms of the health and survival of the individuals who will be a product of these manipulations as well as how evolution of humans will be affected through the manipulations. The two manipulations are: 1. Whole Organism Cloning using Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, (SCNT.) 2. Embryo selection using Pre-implantation Genetic Profiling, (PGP.) SCNT Cloning by definition is the process of producing genetically identical individuals this can occur through many different artificial methods. However naturally it does occur during the formation of twins within humans and other animals as well as through budding and Binary Fission within plants. The manipulation of whole organism cloning I believe would be most beneficial within the advancement of human reproduction is Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, (SCNT.) SCNT is a lab technique that involves creating an ovum with a donor nucleus. There are 3 main steps that occur in the process of SCNT. Steps: 1. A somatic cell from the organism which is to be cloned is taken from the body. TheShow MoreRelatedThe Use Of Genetics And Reproduction Essay1052 Words   |  5 PagesThe use of genetics and reproduction sciences has been an ongoing debate for years. Some argue that the use of genetics and reproduction sciences are unjust, unethical and inhumane. The other side of the debate argues that the use of such sciences is a â€Å"life saver†, that it will improve medical advancements, health, and society. Genetics and reproduction sciences are used for informing individuals about possible outcomes, abnormalities, and genes of current and future pregnancies. Genetic testingRead MoreReaction Of Walter Benjamin And The Film Shadow Magic 915 Words   |  4 Pagesgeneralize by saying: the technique of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. By making many reproductions it substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence. And in permitting the reproduction to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation, it reactivates the object reproduced.† - Walter Benjamin, The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (1936) Benjamin is saying that reproductions reduce the integrity of the art becauseRead MoreCell Research : Stem Cell Therapy1095 Words   |  5 Pagesstem cell research, but I remember when it first stood out to me was when quarterback Peyton Manning went over to Europe to get stem cell therapy done on his neck to prevent him from getting surgery done. Stem cells offer much hope for medical advancement because of their ability to grow into almost any kind of cell. Stem cells are crucial to develop organisms. They are non-specialized cells which have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body during early lifeRead MoreThe Field Of Reproductive Technology1484 Words   |  6 Pagestechnology. Advancements in this field has expanded family options significantly with the advent of reproductive technologies such as in vetro fertilization, embryo transplant, and varying genetic testing and screening (Finsterbusch, 2008). However, what drives humanity to want to modify humankind? Should there be limits placed on these modifications? And, how far should we really go? According to the President’s Council on Bioethics, the completion of the DNA sequencing phase of the Human Genome ProjectRead MoreObserving the Similarities and Differences between Handmaids Tale and Gattaca1127 Words   |  4 PagesDystopian fiction has dominated human imagination for centuries and themes of futuristic societies oppressed by bureaucratic and technological control have become consistent throughout various novels, films and television shows. The absence and mistreatment of humanity due to factors such as war, famine and poverty criticize current global issues while also foreshadowing the consequences of those issues if left unresolved. Both Margaret Atwood’s The Handmaid’s Tale, and the movie GattacaRead MoreThe Great Depression Of The Brave New World934 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the Brave New World there were many interesting things that occurred, but would not be acceptable within today s society. As human have become more civilized the evolution of eugenics, economies, and politics recently occurring events could lead one to believe that humans will eventually have a society like the one in Brave New World . The first example is how every country s economy is in some type of national debt. If major economy were to collapses it will cause a rippleRead MoreArtificial Wombs Will Spawn New Freedoms Essay1148 Words   |  5 PagesIn this article Olson and Pellisier discuss how artificial wombs will change human reproduction. The authors believe that over time the concept of an egg, an artificial womb, will be used for human reproduction, rather than incubation of fetus within a woman’s body. This process is called ectogenesis, which is â€Å"the development of artificial wombs that can sustain fetuses to term without the need for womens bodies.† (Smajdor, 2007) This article discusses the concept of an artificial womb, the healthRead MoreTechnology And Science Have Changed The Way Society Views981 Words   |  4 PagesReproductive technology, bio-medical technology, and even simple household appliances have changed how people live, think, and interact. According to Science Daily, scientists are researching another technological advancement to look forward to in the future, human genome editing. Human genome editing is a form of genome therapy. Genome Therapy refers to the removal of faulty genes or adding new genes to cure or prevent disease (Placeholder1). This news article, found on multiple sites like ScienceRead MoreTo survive in the wild, plants must form defenses to protect themselves from herbivory. The main800 Words   |  4 Pagesdefenses or other means. A common defense of animals is poison. This poison either builds in the body of the animal or they can accumulate it through nature. Creatures such as frogs secrete poison through their skin and can kill creatures as great as humans. Snakes too have poison, but they distribute it to their predators and prey through lethal or crippling bites. Also, animals make sounds that deter predators by frightening or displeasing them. Finally, they have physical defenses such as thorns andRead MoreHuman Reproductive Cloning Is Immoral And Unnatural1570 Words   |  7 Pages Amber Cady Human Reproductive Cloning is Immoral and Unnatural Westmoreland County Community College Introduction In some ways, the never-ending scientific possibilities of our time have continued to exceed our expectations. Within the 20th century there has been new medical research on stem cell research, and we have successfully completed organ transplants—more recently face and skin transplants. Without progressions like this from science, many would not be alive today. But when does

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Islam And The Muslim Religious Experience - 1365 Words

All through its history, Islam has been seen as a religious convention which began in (seventh) century Arabia with the prophet Muhammad who lived between 570-632. He got the heavenly divine revelation that is recorded in the Quran. This is still trusted today in the cutting edge Islamic convictions. In any case, it is most imperative to understand that Muslims don t see Islam as another religion. Muslims trust that Allah (which truly signifies The God in Arabic) is the same God who uncovered himself to Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. In this manner, Jews, Christians, and Muslims are all supporters of the same living God—cousins in a typical family with a typical predecessor, Abraham. Muslims trust that the Quran is the last and finish disclosure of God to all individual The focal reality of the Muslim religious experience is Allah. The God of the Quran is one and otherworldly, inventor and sustainer of the universe, and the mind-boggling worry of the adherent. Islam signifies accommodation; a Muslim is one who submits to God, one who is a worker of God. This is not a simple lack of involvement; rather, it is accommodation to the Divine Will, an obligation to acknowledge effectively God s will ever. Accordingly, the Quran shows that God has given the earth to man as a heavenly trust and that it is a man s obligation and mission, as God s operators, to endeavor to understand God s will. The Muslim s celestially ordered business is public and person. The IslamicShow MoreRelatedMuslim World Cosmopolitanism1699 Words   |  7 Pagesearth, can we talk about â€Å"Muslim† world cosmopolitanism? That is just how Allah or His prophet, Muhammad (570-632), from day one, viewed Islam, whether anyone liked it or not, as the religion for entire humanity. Listen to its first revealed injunction â€Å"Read in the name of thy Lord, Who created Man from congealed blood; Proclaim that thy Lord is Most Bountiful, Who taught with Pen; Taught man that which he knew not.† (Quran, 96: 1-5). In this first proclamation of Islam, Allah reveals HimselfRead MoreUnderstanding Islam1309 Words   |  6 Pages â€Å"Understanding Islam† by Kenneth Jost, pg. 172 – 176 Islam is an ill-perceived religion throughout most of the Western world. Once known as a quiet and peaceful religion, the general perception of people from other religions and most of the world upon Islam is quite distorted. Ever since the 9/11 attacks on the World Trade Center, an influx of discrimination and prejudice towards Islam and Muslims has spread throughout the world. In â€Å"Understanding Islam,† by Kenneth Jost, an article aboutRead MoreIslamic Culture Essay1273 Words   |  6 PagesMUSLIM CULTURE Muslim culture generally reflects the traditions and customs of Muslims that they adopt for a perfect and respectable life in the society according to the lessons of Quran. Muslim culture is a giant combination of diverse cultures, That’s because Muslims live in various countries all over the world. Most of the practices are common faiths and guidance for all Muslims no matter what country or even content they reside in.. These basic faiths and belives are based on theRead MoreEssay on Islam The Straight Path989 Words   |  4 Pages Islam The Straight Path   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  An evaluation of the book by John L. Esposito: Islam The Straight Path. In this book , Esposito provides a succinct, up-to-date survey of the Islamic experience, an introduction to the faith, belief, and practice of Islam from its origins to its contemporary resurgence. He traces the emergence and development of this dynamic faith and its impact on world history and politics. He discusses the formation of Islamic belief and practice (law, theology, philosophy,Read MoreIslam : A Monotheistic Religion1505 Words   |  7 Pages Modern Challenges Paper Islam is a monotheistic religion taking into account disclosures got by the prophet Muhammad in the seventh century A.D., which were later recorded in the Quran (or Koran), Islam s consecrated content. Islam has spread quickly during the time and today the religion is, by a few estimations, the biggest on the planet. Devotees of Islam are called Muslims. The Arabic word Islam signifies accommodation, mirroring the confidence s focal precept of submitting to Allah. IslamicRead MoreIslam And The Middle East1057 Words   |  5 Pagesstyles. Muslims eating habits are expected to be in function of their religious beliefs, by Islam regulations as described in the Qur’an and dictated by the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammed. Muslims consume all kind of food, except for the ones prohibited in Islam. Food cleanliness is one of their priority, nails, hair, mouth, teeth must be properly washed to prevent food contamination, and they use a â€Å"Mismark† before every meal which is a specific tooth cleaner proper to their culture. Islam teachingRead MoreThe Basic Beliefs Of Islam1660 Words   |  7 PagesOne of the basic beliefs of Islam is that God has sent his revelation through a series of communications to humans in many ways and times. The recipients of these communications are referred to as both prophets (to specific communities) and messengers (with a universal message). Jews and Christians recognize many of the prophets and messengers mentioned in the Qur’an, the sacred scripture of Islam, for their role in Old Testament history. In Islam, Jesus generally is considered to be the greatestRead MoreHow Trade in West Africa Encouraged The Spread of Islam1151 Words   |  5 PagesHOW TRADE IN WEST AFRICA ENCOURAGED THE SPREAD OF ISLAM Islam, a monotheistic and spiritually based religion which refers to the act of giving great reverence to the Supreme Being, â€Å"submission to God† was found in the Saudi Arabian countries by the Prophet Muhammad in 610 C.E.1 The religion which was renowned for its triumph, patent power with an open set of beliefs about the Dos and the DONTs so as to gain access to heaven spread spontaneously as people learned of it through trade.1 It is todayRead MoreReligion1264 Words   |  6 PagesMisconceptions about Islam – A personal perspective Islam may be the most misunderstood religion in the United States. The impression that majority of non-Muslim Americans have is usually obtained through the media which typically represent Islamic countries or groups in the middle of a Holy War. These wars are usually waged by Islamic Fundamentalist who use terrorism and other violent acts to get their messages across giving Islam a negative reputation. Because of the lack of understandingRead MoreIslamic Modernism : A Multiple Modernities Perspective1611 Words   |  7 Pagesmodernity experiences (Eisenstadt 2002; Preyer 2013; Smith and Vaidyanathan 2010). There are many modernities, not only one single patter of modernization. These developments forced sociologists for a paradigm shift in the dominant one-side understanding of western modernity. In this context, Islam and the discourse of western Muslim intellectuals have gradually gained visibility through the continuing migration and the growth of new generations in the western societies. Western Islam also has emerged

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Upper canopy tree cover in cocoa agroforestry system Free Essays

Climate Change is one aspect or explanation of how the livelihood of farmers can be threatened. (Cocklebur, 2012) In Ghana, the climate has changed over the last years of which crops are getting destroyed due to periods of extreme heat and heavy rains. As Mambo and colleagues outline in their paper, climate change mitigation in Africa to date has largely focused on reforestation and forest protection. We will write a custom essay sample on Upper canopy tree cover in cocoa agroforestry system or any similar topic only for you Order Now This has often conflicted with the need to expand agricultural production to feed the continent’s growing population. But this need not be the case, says Mambo, as exaggerators may be able to deliver both on increasing tree cover to store carbon while also enhancing agricultural productivity. Cocoa cultivation maintains a higher proportions of upper canopy crown cover (cocoa exaggerators) which is increasingly being viewed as a sustainable land use practice that is environmentally preferable to other forms of agricultural activities in tropical forest regions because it contributes to biodiversity conservation and income diversification. Properly managed cocoa exaggerators systems play a crucial role in helping farmers adapt and build resilience to uncertain climates. (Langford, 2014). Upper canopy trees can provide a buffer against climatic extremes that impact crop growth. They can enhance understood growth and improve water use efficiency. These trees have also been shown to increase rainfall utilization compared to annual cropping systems. And are known to have a direct impact on local and regional rainfall patterns, so they also have considerable potential to alleviate drought in parts of Africa. Mambo et. Al, 2014). The use of production landscapes in Ghana for cocoa reduction has intensified dramatically over the last three decades. (UNDO, 2014). This research will examine the evolution of the cocoa sector in Ghana primarily to understand the factors that have contributed to the success of the use of upper canopy crown cover and to look for lessons for fostering agricultural transformation. The relatively dens e forest that characterized the initial cultivation of cocoa in Ghana maintained the natural ecosystem suitable for cocoa growth. The District Administrative capital Jabots is located km to the north-west of Seconds Dictator Metropolitan, the regional capital and a distance of km from Kumara, the Shanty regional capital. The District shares borders with Bib and Sauna’s North Municipal in the North, Sauna’s South and Body District to the east, Seaman District to the south and La Cote divorce to the west. 1. . 2 Materials Materials needed for this study will include the following; Measuring tape; for measuring the length of trees, branches and crowns. Densitometers; for measuring of the diameters of trees and branches. Hypocrites for measuring tree height Releasers ; to determine the upper diameter of big trees Calipers, either wooden beam or finish parabolic will be used to measure tree diameters when the diameters are not over CACM. Compass; to check directions of NSA and EWE. Sampling intensity This study will be conducted in 12 cocoa farms in the vicinity of Bib district. These farms will be selected purposely base on the maturity of the cocoa exaggerators system practiced. The spread of that line is horizontal distance between those two positions. On steeply sloping ground (1 5 degrees) the taped distance between the two points can be corrected to a true horizontal by using basic trigonometry. Horizontal distance = coos (inclination) x slope distance. The area of the crown may be estimated employing the assumption that is equivalent to the area off circle defined by an average crown diameter. The linear ape will be used to measure the length of crown margin in the direction of NSA, and EWE. The average may be obtained using arithmetic mean of the maximum and minimum crown diameter. These equations will be used in determining the crown surface area and volume; Crown surface area; L/2 Crown volume; 2 hoc / 12 Where d = diameter at the base of the crown (m), hoc = crown depth (m), and L= length of crown margin (m). DATA ANALYSIS Data acquired from the sampling intensity will be analyzed using analytical software, GENERATE (VS. international version 2011). Species composition and crown diameters f trees will be compared using the analysis of variance and statistical test. How to cite Upper canopy tree cover in cocoa agroforestry system, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Juvenile Delinquency and Conduct Disorder free essay sample

According to Dryfoos, Juvenile delinquency generally refers to behavior of youth that violate the social norms, like commit socially unacceptable behavior and the criminal acts. According to juvenile delinquency ordinance, juvenile delinquency applies to those whose aged between 7- 20. As juvenile delinquency accounts for significant proportion of crime rate in Hong Kong, therefore, the cause of it should be considered. In this easy, the characteristics of the youth will be outlined to serves as the foundation to analysis the cause of crime. Then, I will briefly illustrate the similarities and differences of the macro-level learning theories and the micro-level learning theories. Afterwards, I will apply the above theories in analyzing the juvenile delinquency in Hong Kong, aiming to explain that the micro-level learning theories are more comprehensive in explaining the cause of crime. The characteristics of the adolescents Adolescent is the transition period from childhood to adulthood. Such onset of puberty forces a child to be more adult like and therefore shows the following characteristics. We will write a custom essay sample on Juvenile Delinquency and Conduct Disorder or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page First, In order to look like a worthwhile individual, teenagers long for independence. Therefore, they usually view authority as sources for intervening their life and thus usually hostile to authorities, like parents, teachers and police. On the contrary, they want to experience the independence by spending time with friends, research shows that adolescent usually spend twice more time with friends , therefore their thought and action are susceptible to be influenced by deviant peers. Further, teenagers are moodiness as a result of rapid changes in the hormone levels. Therefore, juvenile crime usually is a result of sensation-seeking, without obvious goals and target. Therefore, the above factors show that the immaturity both physically and mentally cause them to be more likely to commit crime. Even the characteristics of the adolescent cause crime, the macro-level learning theory and the micro-level learning theory should also be illustrated. We aims to show that with the characteristics of hostility towards authority and the longing for peer acceptance, juvenile delinquency should be better explained by the micro-level learning theories. Macro-level learning theories The macro-level learning theories focus on explaining the structural characteristics that cause juvenile delinquency. The Macro-Level learning theories include both anomie and strain theory. Anomie refers to a states of low level of moral regualation from rapid social changes , while the strain theories means that people do not follow the social norms to achieve their goals. Both theories views that crime exists because specific groups hold value that are conducive to crime or justify crime in some circumstances. Under such situation, the approval of crime serves as the motivation for crime for those groups. However, there are differences held by the anomie and strain theories in explaining the cause of crime. Their differences are that Anomie is better in explaining why some societies have a higher crime rate. Anomie states that crime exists when a society is placed too much emphasized on the cultural goals and relatively less emphasized on the means to achieve the goals. As a result, the traditional institution fail to regulate the goal seeking behavior, so people tend to achieve the cultural goals illegitimately. The society of which is characterized by anomie where people behavior is subject to less regulation. On the contrary, the strain theory is further developed to precisely explain how the lower class people are pressurized to commit crime. In general, they views that the inability to access the cultural goals produce strain on people. In details, Merton proposed that there are five forms of adaption to strain. However, only the illegitimacy adjustment will cause crime. The first type of the illegitimate adjustment is innovation, which describe people to achieve goal through illegitimate means. The second type of adjustment include substituting alternative goals which may leads to crime, the examples includes rebellion and retreatism. Micro-level learning theory The Micro-level analysis attempts to explain how the individual engage in crime. The differential association and social learning theories shares characteristics on this theory. Both theories emphasize that juvenile delinquent is learned, particularly from intimate others. Also, the association that occurred early in life, over long period of time, frequently are more conducive to crime exists. However, social learning theory specified in explaining that the peer groups is a important social context in which the person learned to defined the law as favorable or unfavorable through the interactions with intimate others. During those associations, the criminal learned the technique and definition that are conducive to crime as afterwards individuals will rationalized and changed their attitudes, that encourages the violation of the law. Therefore, a person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definition favorable to violate the law, which is the result of frequent contact with criminal partners. However, the social learning theories are the extension of the Sutherland differential association theory, emphasized equally on the four mechanism by which the criminal behavior is learned through observations. The mechanism includes differential association, definitions, differential reinforcement and imitation. Therefore, Sutherland believes that crime can be learned indirectly by associating with the distant reference group and values. After this differential association, crime is likely when an individual attach the positive and neutral meaning to crime. These definitions made crime morally accepted and justified for the individual. The third mechanism is the differential reinforcement, which means that crime is likely when the individual expects the outcomes for the criminal behavior produce greater amount of tangible and intangible reinforcement than that of the negative outcomes. The fourth is that imitation of the criminal behavior, which is likely when the models have positive outcomes. After examining the characteristics of the teenagers and the sociological theory of crime, we will use the following case to show that the differential association and social learning theory offer a better explanation in the cause of the juvenile delinquency. Drug abuse Differential association and the social learning theories is a better explanation of drug abuse among teenagers. A study carried out by the Hong Kong federation of youth group (HKFYP) shows that teenagers’ first experience with drug is mostly caused by the peer influences. Delinquent friends are the main channel of acquiring drug . The finding is also supported by a local example. An example is from Anna. The reason is that she faces difficulties in adapting to the secondary school life, later she started to take drug as she once went to Disco with her friends, she first feels uncomfortable after taking drug at first, but she became addicted to drug because of friends persuasion. The above cases show that Micro-level learning theories are better than the Macro-level learning theories in explaining drug abuse. The anomic and strain theories will explain the increases in drug abuses are due to the rise in materialism. Such conditions leads the traditional institution, like family fails to effectively socialize individual to relieve their depression in the positive way, meanwhile, teenagers have more monetary resources to relief their depression. Therefore, without sufficient social control, teenagers will try to retreat from the ways and means that society accept and take drug with their friends. However, when considering the characteristics of the teenagers, the differential and social learning theories are more precise in explaining the cause of drug abuse It is known that the media and the parents always promote the message of defending drug abuse. The results are that teenagers felt their freedom are threatened and want to get away from the authority. One solution is that they want to challenge the authority, and meanwhile experienced the freedom through taking drug with friends. Therefore, the differential and social learning theories are better in explaining drug abuse is a learned behavior through associating with the delinquent friends . Such exposure to delinquent friends leads teenagers to attach a positive definition favorable to take drug. For examples, teenagers tend to view drug abuse as a normal part of social life, especially in disco. The delinquent friends will also serves as a role model and people learn the technique of how others take drug through observations. Further, teenagers will become drug addicted as they receive non-social and social reinforcement. The social reinforcement is the continuous support from the delinquent friends. Also, the non-social reinforcement comes from teenagers getting physically high after repeatedly taking drug. Those reinforcements increase the tendency of drug taking and thus cause drug abuses. Therefore, the social learning and differential association theories can explain that apart from recognition of friends the differential perception of reward would cause shoplifting. In this case, the teenagers regard recognition by peer is reinforcement while paying effort to Shoplifting Differential association and social learning theory is a better explanation of the cause of crime. Here we will illustrate it with two local examples . One is that a boy come from middle class steal a cup noodle with his friends, which priced at $9 in a convenience store. Another case is that two teenagers steal a latest mobile phone, they are familiar with the way of stealing and successful stole the mobile phone within five minutes. Anomic and strain theories can explain the shoplifting in terms of the rise of materialism. That means parents,schools are likely to focus on the material success, so the traditional value of gaining money in proper way is devalued by the parents. Thus, the tradition institution fails to socialize the juvenile. Therefore, the juvenile will tend to use less effort to gain the material success, thus the shoplifting is easier to occur. Therefore, the shoplifting is characterized by innovation, which means juvenile turn to use fewer efforts but can still achieve the material that they want. The above cases show that the things stolen are not very expensive, therefore, shoplifting is not stemmed from severe strain, and rather it reflects the want for peer recognition. Teenagers want to be independence and peer acceptance is one way that they can feel confident about themselves apart from their family. As peer acceptance is so important that teenagers will conform to the life of their delinquent friends. When considering the above characteristics of teenagers, the differential association and social learning theories can better explain the cause of shoplifting. The Macro-level learning theories can explain the shoplifting as associated with the intimate friends, such exposure to the delinquent friend leads the teenagers conform to the norms of the delinquent groups through attaching a positive meaning to the shoplifting. As the cases I mentioned, the shoplifting happened with other delinquent friends. Through observing the process and consequences of stealing by peers, the teenagers will learn the stealing technique. The intimation of skills of teenagers is usually resulted in recognition by the friends as reinforcing the shoplifting. Therefore, shoplifting is a learned skill that was rewarding to the individual. Generally, the macro-level learning theories can address the characteristics of the teenagers and further explain associate with delinquent friends will cause of shoplifting. Vandalism is better explained by the differential association and the social learning theory. Here we will illustrate with one local example. During the mid-autumn festival, the youth gang did a bus terminus arson. one of the boy claiming himself as the doer in the facebook and later arrested. The anomie and strain theory explain it in terms of the rise of individualism. Individualism promotes the exercise of one goal and interests. That means the juvenile focus on their own exercise, meanwhile, the traditional value like civil minded is less emphasized. Therefore, the juvenile tends to commit vandalism without guilt as they believe that others will be responsible for cleaning the mass made by them. Vandalism is characterized by the innovation, which means the juvenile still keep their goal but is using a news means to release themselves. The differential association and the social learning theory offers a better explanation in the cause of crime. The reason is that they can explained that the vandalism is usually done with delinquent friends, than the juvenile usually attached a favorable definition to vandal. The vandal can serves as a role model, teenagers can learn the process ofo destructing public property and the rewarding consequences of vandal behavior. In conclusion, the anomie and strain theories of crime offer better explanation of juvenile delinquency than the differential association and social learning theories is invalid as most of the cases can be explained more comprehensively by the differential and social learning theories, so the validity of this statement depends on cases. , while the Micro-Level learning theories explain the individual differences in committing crime.